What is a freshwater parrotfish

Parrotfish: Good or Bad for the Hobby?
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In many ornamental fish markets in China, some aquaculturists usually add salt to water during transportation and water renewal to maintain freshwater ornamental fish in a good shape (i.e. fish are more active and bright-coloured). However, the physiological effects of increased salinity on freshwater ornamental fish are unclear. Blood parrot, commonly known as bloody parrot or blood parrotfish, is a popular ornamental freshwater fish worldwide. Blood parrot is a man-made cross-bred fish hybridised from male Cichlasoma citrinellum and female Cichlasoma synspilum in Taiwan during the late 1980s and enjoyed in many countries, such as China and Japan, in recent years because of its bright red appearance and plump body. To explain the above phenomenon and explore whether increasing salinity favours the culture or transportation in freshwater ornamental fish, we chose blood parrotfish as a model to clarify the physiological mechanism based on the following hypotheses: (1) Increased water salinity saves energy for oxygen consumption by regulating NKA activity; (2) Increased water salinity stimulates fish immune responses by increasing antioxidant enzymes; (3) Increased water salinity helps preserve the fish skin pigment. Thus, the oxygen consumption, NKA activity, serum osmolality, immune-related enzyme activities in the gill, and skin carotenoid content of blood parrotfish were investigated by transferring fish from freshwater to water with four salinity levels (0.16, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ‰) for 168 h, and physiological parameters were evaluated at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 168 h. Our results may also provide some useful information for freshwater ornamental fish production and logistics.
Home arrow Freshwater and Marine Image Bank arrow Jaws of Blue Parrot-fish, Scarus caeruleus (Bloch). Reference URL. Share. Add tags. Comment. Rate.
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These fish should not be confused with the Parrot Cichlid Hoplarchus psittacus which is another freshwater cichlid from South America that is quite aggressive. They also have no relation to the saltwater Rivulated Parrotfish Scarus rivulatus (previously Callyodon fasciatus). There is also another popular cichlid hybrid called the . It too is very attractive but much difference in appearance than these Parrotfish. Blood parrot cichlid - Wikipedia
Photo provided by FlickrCichlid Research Home Page: Parrot Cichlids
Photo provided by FlickrSep 6, 2009 - Cichlids are freshwater fishes and all parrot cichlids are freshwater fishes
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The two types of fish commonly referred to as freshwater parrotfish are the parrot chichlid, a large fish that inhabits the Amazon and Orinoco rivers in South America, and the blood parrot chichlid, a man-made hybrid with anatomical deformities developed in Taiwan. True parrot chichlids are rarely seen in aquariums, while blood parrot chichlids are popular with some aquarium enthusiasts.The Blood Parrots are fish developed by breeders and hobbyists. Since they are a hybrid, they are domestic and only found in aquariums. There are no wild populations. They are also called the Bloody Parrot and Blood Parrotfish. Some varieties are described by their physical appearance such as the Love Heart Parrot, which has no tail fin.Dyed specimens are known as the Jellybean Parrot or Bubble Gum Parrot. These are albino or light colored Blood Parrots dyed to produce pinks, purples, blues, and other colors. Others are given names that describe them by their color such as Purple Parrot. Obtaining dyed specimens is not recommended and these fish often having a blotchy appearance. One reported method of coloring is done by injecting dye under the skin which then fades within a few months. Colorized fish in general are said to have health problems and often early deaths.Dr. Jungle asks..."Who's your daddy?"The Blood Parrot is said to have been bred in Taiwan and the suggested parents are Central and South American cichlids. But it is up to speculation which parents actually produced the Blood Parrot. There are two different sets of parents suggested as the cross which created these hybrids:First generation:The behavior of the Blood Parrot hybrids is peaceful and shy. This is a characteristic only found in the Severums from South America. The other three Central American cichlids are quite aggressive.Second generation:There may be other new varieties showing up down the road. In their book "Encyclopedia Of Exotic Tropical Fishes For Freshwater Aquariums", authors Glen S. Axelrod, Brian M. Scott, and Neal Pronek share the views of different hobbyists. They share that "some breeders argue that cross-breeding contributes to scientific knowledge of fish and their reproductive strategies, others believe it is arrogant and unethcal for humans to think they can improve on nature" and "there are over 20,000 known fish species already... so there is no need to create new ones". They also point out that problems can be created by exaggerating physical traits.