DIY Biofilter for aquariums - YouTube

Aquarium Biofiltration - SWISSTROPICALS
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Based on the ubiquity and high abundance of AOA in natural environments, the inability of Hovanec and DeLong (1996) to detect AOB in freshwater aquaria, and the isolation of the first ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from aquarium substrate , we hypothesized that AOA dominate freshwater aquarium biofilters and play an important role in aquarium nitrification. In addition to determining the abundances of AOA and AOB in aquaria, the objectives of this study were to assess the diversity of AOA amoA genes in aquaria, and to determine how these genes clustered with sequences derived from environmental sources and cultured AOA representatives. The results of this study revealed that, based on amoA gene abundances, AOA were the dominant putative ammonia oxidizers in the majority of freshwater and saltwater aquaria. These results provide first evidence for the important role of AOA in freshwater aquarium filtration and suggest possible niche adaptation of AOA to conditions associated with freshwater aquarium biofilters.
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For the marine aquarium biofilter, amoA genes of both AOA and AOB were detected at all time points. Although bacterial amoA gene copy numbers were three to five orders of magnitude higher for the initial and final sampling, AOA amoA genes were the only detected amoA genes for the other sampled time points (). On average, AOB amoA genes accounted for ∼40% of the total marine amoA gene signal. The absence of AOB amoA genes during days 63 and 72 was unexpected; repeated qPCR analyses also failed to amplify any AOB amoA genes from those samples. Overall, the AOA copy number varied over time in all biofilters, yet AOA dominance over AOB was consistent in sampled freshwater aquaria. -- the aquarist is not overfeeding (based on what the biofilter can handle, not what the fish will consume)
Photo provided by FlickrDec 12, 2014 - The terms aquarium biofiltration and biofiltration media are mentioned everywhere
Photo provided by FlickrAquarium Filter Media: Biofilter Media Review - YouTube
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Today, the term “bio” is in everybody’s word usage: bio food, bio fuel, bio degradable, etc. The aquatic hobby has not been overlooked and aquarium biofiltration and biofiltration media are mentioned everywhere. Rather than going into the pros and cons of various media or the basic chemistry of the nitrogen cycle, this article is dedicated to the biofilter processes that happen in nature and have implications for our aquariums.For aquarium biofiltration to be most effective, filters should be running undisturbed for as long as possible. Filter media that remain passable and have a variety of pore sizes are best. Given that we like to influence the water parameters depending on the species we keep, and thus make water soft, hard, etc, the filter media should be chemically inert, so that it does not affect the water chemistry by itself.Biofilms are communities of microorganisms (see below) in which cells are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which is often called “slime”. The cells adhere to each other and/or the surface. Biofilms are a system/network of microorganisms that adapts to environmental conditions. They form on living or non-living surfaces and are prevalent in natural and artificial settings. EPS is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular biopolymers in various structural forms. Biofilms are the basis of substrate-bound aquarium biofiltration.Ammonia is a toxic metabolic waste product excreted by fish and other aquatic organisms. Ammonia toxicity can threaten aquatic ecosystem health and is a particular concern for relatively closed ecosystems, such as aquaculture operations and home aquaria, in which ammonia can quickly accumulate to lethal concentrations in the absence of active nitrification. The un-ionized form of ammonia (NH3) is particularly toxic to fish; stress, disease, and death may be associated with concentrations that exceed 0.1 mg L−1 in aquarium and aquaculture systems , . In order to convert ammonia to nitrate, aquarium biofilters are designed to promote the growth and activity of nitrifying populations due to the high surface area of filter support material (e.g. sponge, ceramic or polymer) and rapid flow rates of aerated water. Despite their importance to fish health and identical function within many industrial biofilters, including aquaculture and wastewater treatment, little is known of the microorganisms catalyzing nitrification in association with aquarium biofilter support material.